AX Cooling and Condensing Sections can be arranged in virtually any conceivable combination of parallel and series flow. This provides optimum thermal design for the process duty within any limitations involved. The largest cooling jobs and the smallest are handled with equal facility, using AX Sections as "building blocks" to produce a unit of any size. The water or combination of air and water, used as the coolant, can be introduced to the exterior of the Sections by any of several methods.

A method most widely used for the majority of services is that of spraying water over the Sections to provide a cascade type cooler or condenser. Cast iron distributing pans or spray nozzles can be sued for handling the water. On a once through basis, using river, sea, well, or cooling tower water, the cooling load is handled by the sensible heating of the water. The water-air interface produces an additional advantage with an evaporative cooling effect between the water and air.

A natural development of the above type of operation which has become more widely used in water-scarce locations, is the fully evaporative type of AX Section installation. In this type of cooler or condenser, water is sprayed over the Sections in large quantities, but the entire body of water in the system is recirculated, minus a very minor portion, which provides for evaporation and blown down., Such an installation combines the functions of heat exchanger and cooling tower with attendant savings in first cost and operating expense. Evaporation of the coolant is atmospheric, using the natural draft of the air, assisted by the considerable added effect produced by the warm coils in the evaporating zone. No fans are necessary although sometimes desirable, and the water recirculation is a single pumping operation, since the cooling of process fluid and the recirculated coolant are handled simultaneously.

Long a standby of the oil refining industry, completely submerged AX Coolers and condensers, with their large potential emergency thermal capacity and freedom from operational and maintenance difficulty, are among the longest lived items of heat transfer apparatus in use today. Service periods of twenty years without replacement have been usual with this type of installation.

Portion of a completed cooler assembly showing water piping arrangement to distributing pans. Pans, mounted on top of each stack of AX Sections, assure even distribution of water over the stack, as shown here.
This photograph shows the installation of a sulfuric acid cooling system in a mid-western metallurgical plant. Sheathing in fore-ground is incomplete.
Construction view of AX Sections for a sulfuric acid cooler. Installation is for a large fertilizer complex in Central Florida. Water distribution pans and top acid manifold tees are not yet installed in this photograph.

Comparison with Shell and Tube H2SO4 Coolers
Design Features of Sections
Push Nipple Sections
Installation Advantages
Physical Characteristics
Type of Installations